1) What is the difference between the QA and software testing?
The role of QA (Quality Assurance) is to monitor the quality of the process to produce a quality of a product. While the software testing, is the process of ensuring the final product and check the functionality of final product and to see whether the final product meets the user’s requirement.
2) What is Testware?
Testware is the subset of software, which helps in performing the testing of application. It is a term given to the combination of software application and utilities which is required for testing a software package.
3) What is the difference between build and release?
Build: It is a number given to Installable software that is given to testing team by the development team.
Release: It is a number given to Installable software that is handed over to customer by the tester or developer.
4) What are the automation challenges that QA team faces while testing?
- Exploitation of automation tool
- Frequency of use of test case
- Reusability of Automation script
- Adaptability of test case for automation
5) What is bug leakage and bug release?
Bug release is when software or an application is handed over to the testing team knowing that the defect is present in a release. During this the priority and severity of bug is low, as bug can be removed before the final handover.
Bug leakage is something, when the bug is discovered by the end users or customer, and missed by the testing team to detect, while testing the software.
6) What is data driven testing?
Data driven testing is an automation testing part, which tests the output or input values. These values are read directly from the data files. The data files may include csv files, excel files, data pools and many more. It is performed when the values are changing by the time.
7) Explain the steps for Bug Cycle?
- Once the bug is identified by the tester, it is assigned to the development manager in open status
- If the bug is a valid defect the development team will fix it and if it is not a valid defect, the defect will be ignored and marked as rejected
- The next step will be to check whether it is in scope, if it is happen so that, the bug is not the part of the current release then the defects are postponed
- If the defect or bug is raised earlier then the tester will assigned a DUPLICATE status
- When bug is assigned to developer to fix, it will be given a IN-PROGRESS status
- Once the defect is repaired, the status will changed to FIXED at the end the tester will give CLOSED status if it passes the final test.
8) What does the test strategy include?
The test strategy includes introduction, resource, scope and schedule for test activities, test tools, test priorities, test planning and the types of test that has to be performed.
9) Mention the different types of software testing?
- Unit testing
- Integration testing and regression testing
- Shakeout testing
- Smoke testing
- Functional testing
- Performance testing
- White box and Black box testing
- Alpha and Beta testing
- Load testing and stress testing
- System testing
10) What is branch testing and what is boundary testing?
The testing of all the branches of the application, which is tested once, is known as branch testing. While the testing, which is focused on the limit conditions of the software is known as boundary testing.
11) What are the contents in test plans and test cases?
- Testing objectives
- Testing scope
- Testing the frame
- The environment
- Reason for testing
- The criteria for entrance and exit
- Risk factors
12) What is Agile testing and what is the importance of Agile testing?
Agile testing is software testing, which involves the testing of the software from the customer point of view. The importance of this testing is that, unlike normal testing process, this testing does not wait for development team to complete the coding first and then doing testing. The coding and testing both goes simultaneously. It requires continuous customer interaction.
It works on SDLC ( Systems Development Life Cycle) methodologies, it means that the task is divided into different segments and compiled at the end of the task.
13) What is Test case?
Test case is a specific term that is used to test a specific element. It has information of test steps, prerequisites, test environment and outputs.
14) What is the strategy for Automation Test Plan?
- The strategy for Automation Test Plan
- Preparation of Automation Test Plan
- Recording the scenario
- Error handler incorporation
- Script enhancement by inserting check points and looping constructs
- Debugging the script and fixing the issues
- Rerunning the script
- Reporting the result
15) What is quality audit?
The systematic and independent examination for determining the quality of activities is known as quality audit. It allows the cross check for the planned arrangements, whether they are properly implemented or not.
16) How does a server or client environment affect software testing?
As the dependencies on the clients are more, the client or server applications are complex.
The testing needs are extensive as servers, communications and hardware are interdependent. Integration and system testing is also for a limited period of time.
17) What are the tools used by a tester while testing?
- YSlow for FireBug
- Web Developer toolbar for firebox
18) Explain stress testing, load testing and volume testing?
- Load Testing: Testing an application under heavy but expected load is known as Load Testing. Here, the load refers to the large volume of users, messages, requests, data, etc.
- Stress Testing: When the load placed on the system is raised or accelerated beyond the normal range then it is known as Stress Testing.
- Volume Testing: The process of checking the system, whether the system can handle the required amounts of data, user requests, etc. is known as Volume Testing.
19) What are the five common solutions for software developments problems?
- Setting up the requirements criteria, the requirements of a software should be complete, clear and agreed by all
- The next thing is the realistic schedule like time for planning , designing, testing, fixing bugs and re-testing
- Adequate testing, start the testing immediately after one or more modules development.
- Use rapid prototype during design phase so that it can be easy for customers to find what to expect
- Use of group communication tools
20) What is a ‘USE’ case and what does it include?
The document that describes, the user action and system response, for a particular functionality is known as USE case. It includes revision history, table of contents, flow of events, cover page, special requirements, pre-conditions and post-conditions.
21) What is CRUD testing and how to test CRUD?
CRUD testing is another name for Black Box testing. CRUD stands for Create, Read, Update and Delete.
22) What is validation and verification in software testing?
In verification, all the key aspects of software developments are taken in concern like code, specifications, requirements and document plans. Verification is done on the basis of four things list of issues, checklist, walkthroughs and inspection meetings. Following verification, validation is done, it involves actual testing, and all the verification aspects are checked thoroughly in validation.
23) What is thread testing?
A thread testing is a top-down testing, where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.
24) What is configuration management?
It is a process to control and document any changes made during the life of a project. Release control, Change control and Revision control are the important aspects of configuration management.
25) What is Ad Hoc testing?
It is a testing phase where the tester tries to break the system by randomly trying the system’s functionality. It can include negative testing as well.
26) List out the roles of software Quality Assurance engineer?
A software quality assurance engineer tasks include following things
- Writing source code
- Software design
- Control of source code
- Reviewing code
- Change management
- Configuration management
- Integration of software
- Program testing
- Release management process
27) Explain what are test driver and test stub and why it is required?
- The stub is called from the software component to be tested, it is used in top down approach
- The driver calls a component to be tested, it is used in bottom up approach
- It is required when we need to test the interface between modules X and Y and we have developed only module X. So we cannot just test module X but if there is any dummy module we can use that dummy module to test module X
- Now module B cannot receive or send data from module A directly, so in these case we have to transmit data from one module to another module by some external features. This external feature is referred as Driver
28) Explain what is Bug triage?
A bug triage is a process to
- Ensure bug report completeness
- Assign and analyze the bug
- Assigning bug to proper bug owner
- Adjust bug severity properly
- Set appropriate bug priority
29) List out various tools required to support testing during development of the application?
To support testing during development of application following tools can be used
- Test Management Tools: JIRA, Quality Center etc.
- Defect Management Tools: Test Director, Bugzilla
- Project Management Tools: Sharepoint
- Automation Tools: RFT, QTP, and WinRunner
30) Explain what is a cause effect graph?
A cause effect graph is a graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects that can be used to design test cases.
31) Explain what is Test Metric is software testing and what information does it contains?
In software testing, Test Metric is referred to standard of test measurement. They are the statistics narrating the structure or content of a program. It contains information like
- Total test
- Test run
- Test passed
- Test failed
- Tests deferred
- Test passed the first time
32) Explain what is traceability matrix?
A test matrix is used to verify the test scripts per specified requirements of test cases.
33) Explain what is the difference between Regression testing and Retesting?
Retesting is carried out to check the defects fixes, while regression testing is performed to check whether the defect fix have any impact on other functionality.
34) List out the software quality practices through the software development cycle?
Software quality practices includes
- Review the requirements before starting the development phase
- Code Review
- Write comprehensive test cases
- Session based testing
- Risk based testing
- Prioritize bug based on usage
- Form a dedicated security and performance testing team
- Run a regression cycle
- Perform sanity tests on production
- Simulate customer accounts on production
- Include software QA Test Reports
35) Explain what is the rule of a “Test Driven Development”?
The rule of a Test Driven Development is to prepare test cases before writing the actual code. Which means you are actually be writing code for the tests before you write code for the application.
36) Mention what are the types of documents in QA?
The types of documents in QA are
- Requirement Document
- Test Metrics
- Test cases and Test plan
- Task distribution flow chart
- Transaction Mix
- User profiles
- Test log
- User profiles
- Test incident report
- Test summary report
37) Explain what should your QA documents should include?
QA testing document should include
- List the number of defects detected as per severity level
- Explain each requirement or business function in detail
- Inspection reports
- Test plans and test cases
- Bug reports
- User manuals
- Prepare separate reports for managers and users
38) Explain what is MR and what information does MR consists of?
MR stands for Modification Request also referred as Defect report, it is written for reporting errors/problems/suggestions in the software.
39) What does the software QA document should include?
Software QA document should include
- Business rules
- Code changes
- Test plans
- Test cases
- Bug reports
- User manuals, etc
40) Mention how validation activities should be conducted?
Validation activities should be conducted by following techniques
- Hire third party independent verification and validation
- Assign internal staff members that are not involved in validation and verification activities
- Independent evaluation