1) Explain what is the use of Electrotherapy?
Electrotherapy is the use of electrical energy for medical purposes and to relieve the patient from pain. Electrical stimulation can directly block transmission of pain signals along nerves. It also stimulates natural painkiller in our body like endorphins.
2) Explain what is Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy?
Musculoskeletal therapy is the treatment of muscle and joints conditions. The therapist will diagnose, gives treatment and prevent muscle and joint complications, especially a spinal conditions which are responsible for neck and back pain.
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3) Explain what is Nerve Pain? What are the symptoms of Nerve Pain?
Nerve pain is caused by damage nerves that often happens when you met with some accident or disease. It is also referred as neuralgia or neuropathic. Such pain is different in their effect, and it can start anywhere in the body. The pain is often like stabbing, shooting, burning, aching, burning or electric shock.
4) Explain what are the responsibilities of Physical Therapist?
- Patient Assessment
- Formulate patient care plan
- Execute patient care plan
- Keep records
- Train and Supervise Aides
5) What are the areas where physical therapist are expert?
- Neck and back pain
- Wound care
- Problems due to cancer
- Treatment for older or children
- Cardiac rehabilitation
- Sports related injury and complications
- Respiratory problems
- Muscular aches
6) List out some of the conventional equipment used by physical therapist to treat a patient?
Conventional equipment used by physical therapist are
- Exercise balls
- Resistance exercise bands
- Posture Mirror
7) What are the techniques used by physiotherapy?
Techniques used are
- Hands on Techniques: In this technique hands are used for many purposes like joint manipulation with gentle gliding, muscle stretches, massage and taping techniques.
- Exercise Prescription: A planned exercise suggested by physical therapist, is the most common technique used for pain relief and to recover from accidental internal injury.
- Biomechanical Analysis: Your physiotherapist can save you from fatal injuries while practicing any sports or sports training by educating you about what not to do by doing bio-mechanical analysis.
8) List out some common causes of Nerve Pain?
Common cause of Nerve Pain is
- Shingles (Viral Infection)
- Trigeminal Neuralgia
- Diabetic Neuropathy
- Multiple Sclerosis
- HIV infection
- Alcoholism and other nerve disorder
9) Explain how does kinesiology tape reduce swelling?
When you apply kinesiology tape over an inflamed area, the stretch in the tape gently lifts the skin, creating a space between the skin and the tissue below. This will create a negative pressure, allowing lymphatic vessel and blood vessels to dilate (open) increasing the circulation of both fluids. When lymphatic vessel opens it will drain out the liquid accumulated at the inflamed area, which reduces swelling and relieves the person from pain. This tape does not contain any drug or pain killer in it.
10) Explain what is Lymphatic Drainage?
Lymphatic drainage is the delicate form of massage, where you do gentle massage on the body, which stimulates the body lymphatic system. It will improve the metabolism, helping the body to eliminate waste and toxin and boost the immune system at the same time. It is also helpful in relieving pain and reducing puffiness.
11) Explain what is TENS machine?
A TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation) machine are electronic medical devices, which can help person to relieve from short term pain. It functions by stimulating nerves via electrical current.
12) What is the treatment of Arthritis?
- Protect your joints: Do not lift any heavy weight which can exert pressure on your knees and joints
- Do exercise: Under physician supervision or as guided by them you can do light exercise at small interval
- Lose weight: lose excess weight
- Bone up: Eat food that is rich in calcium or can take a calcium supplement as directed by physician. For a diabetic, blood pressure or heart patient, they have to take advice from a physician for the calcium supplement as it might interact with other medication.
- Take the medication as prescribed: Don’t stop any medication by your own without consulting physician, if you are not finding medication of any use.
- Apply warm water: Apply warm water pads it will help to relieve muscle tension and ease aching joints.
- Stretch your legs: Small stretching exercise will make muscle ligament strong and stop muscles from wear and tear.
- Apply Ice: When joints are inflamed and hot, try putting ice pack on it, it will reduce the swelling on it and pain by constricting blood vessels.
- Eat healthy: Eat healthy food rich in minerals, nutrients and proteins. It will cover the quota you required to function your body metabolic activities.
13) How physical therapist treat back pain?
Physical therapist usually follows two approaches to treat patient with back pain.
a) Passive physical therapy
- Heat or Ice packs
- TENS units
b) Active physical therapy
- Back strengthening exercise
- Low impact aerobic exercise
- Stretching exercises for back pain
14) Mention what are the taping technique used in physical therapy?
The various technique of taping includes
- ACL Taping: For stability
- Hip Taping: For hip treatment
- Mulligan Taping techniques: To treat Tennis Elbow
- Mulligan Taping Technique: To treat inverse ankle sprain
Apart from this taping, it can also be applied to various part of the body.
15) Explain what is ITB (Iliotibial Band) Syndrome?
The Iliotibial band syndrome is a pain caused in the knee due to the overuse of a long tendon, which connects bones to the muscles in the knee. The pain usually occurs in the outside of the knee just above the knee. This syndrome is often observer in cyclists, runners and athletes
16) Explain how ITB syndrome is treated?
ITB syndrome is cured with simple exercise and stretches, physiotherapy can use the following approach to cure the patient with ITB syndrome
- By treating the knee and the affected area with heat, ice and ultrasound
- By adjusting your routine like shortening the distance of your running or cycling, not overdoing things or restrict some positions that can put stress on knee areas.
- Choosing correct exercise for strengthening muscles
- Using techniques like ultrasound and friction massage to reduce inflammation on the knees
- Surgery is rarely needed to cure ITB problems
17) What types of treatment do Gynecology Physiotherapy includes?
The types of treatment that Gynecology Physiotherapy includes
- Antenatal Physiotherapy
- Post Natal Physiotherapy
- Stress Urinary Incontinence
18) Explain what is the difference between Chiropractic, Physiotherapy and Osteopathy?
- Chiropractic: It is primarily focused on the manipulation of the spine to improve the general health of muscles and bones.
- Osteopathy: It deals with musculo-skeletal system and is concerned with the structure that may be affected by the poor health of these systems
- Physiotherapy: It is more wide and deals with any complication with injuries to musculo -skeletal system
19) Explain how taping can be helpful in treating Patellofemoral pain syndrome?
It is observed that when patient is not given a tailored set of exercise and instead follows the generic exercise it fails to tread Patellofemoral pain. Apart from a controlled exercise, taping can also be used to cure Patellofemoral pain. It relieves pain and improves contractile ability of the quadriceps.
20) What complication occurs when a patient has an adverse neural tension?
The complication arises due to adverse neural tension are
- Back pain
- Neck pain
- Shoulder pain
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Tennis elbow
- Pinched nerve
21) Briefly explain about Thai Yoga Massage?
Thai massage is based on three aspects muscle compression, joint mobilization and acupressure. In this therapy, the therapist uses his knees, hands, feet and legs to move you into a series of yoga-like stretches.
22) What is Esalen Massage is like?
Esalen massage targets muscles and circulatory system with long, gentle, unpredictable strokes and mild stretching. It increases body awareness, relaxes the muscles and nervous system. It also excretes body toxins.
23) Mention what are the different types of Massage Therapy?
- Swedish Massage
- Aromatherapy Massage
- Hot stone Massage
- Deep Tissue Massage
- Thai Massage
- Pregnancy Massage
- Sports Massage
- Back Massage
24) What massage therapist should take care of while giving massage to the client?
- Avoid direct pressure to joints
- Avoid local site of unstable fractures, open wounds, hematomas, burns, scars
- No abdominal massage to pregnant women
- Seek medical guidance from patient physician if he has some critical condition like tumor or skin cancer
- Avoid massaging if client has kidney related problems or you observe edema in client. Avoid msaage if client has Arteriosclerosis & Circulatory conditions or Deep vein thrombosis & Varicose veins
25) Mention who should not take massage therapy?
A patient who is under following treatment or medication should avoid massage therapy or consult a physician before taking massage therapy.
- Blood Thinners: It may result in bruising with heavy pressure or deep tissue work
- Blood Pressure Medication: It can result in low blood pressure or uneasiness upon sitting or standing after massage
- Topical drugs such as hormone or antibiotic creams: There are a chance that the cream or oil used for massage might interfere with the client’s absorption of the medication
- Injectable medication: Massage therapist should avoid the injection site, specially patient with insulin, as it might interfere with how drug is absorbed
- Pain Killers: A massage therapist should stick with low-pressure massage if the patient is on painkiller.
26) What things you should do before and after Massage Therapy?
Things to do before Massage
- Drink plenty of water
- Avoid Smoking
- Listen to the Therapist Things to do after Massage
- Steam Bath
- Don’t sleep
27) Explain what is Reflexology type Massage?
Reflexology type massage involves the physical act of putting pressure to the feet and hands with specific finger, thumb and hand techniques without the use of lotion or oil. This therapy targets the reflex areas that are believed to reflect as a map on the feet and hands. It improves the blood circulation, and it is a popular therapy amongst cancer patients.
28) Explain what you can eat after and before massage therapy?
- Prior to your treatment, avoid eating a heavy meal. It will leave you tired and lethargic
- Its recommended you eat a light and easily digestible meal at least one and half hour before your massage like soup, fruit and non-fizzy drinks with natural sugars
- Avoid alcohol prior to and after massage
- Consume plenty of water, it helps to get rid of wastes, toxins and congestion
- Try to eat a light meal like high protein and low carbohydrate after the massage
29) Explain what is Hot Stone Massage therapy?
Hot stone massage technique uses smooth, heated stones by setting them on the body while therapist massage other parts of the body. The heat does both deeply relaxing the muscles and at the same time warm up tight muscles and relieve from pain.
30) Explain what are the conditions that can be treated with Hot Stone Massage therapy?
- Muscular aches and pains
- Back pain
- Stress and Anxiety
- Insomnia and depression
31) Explain what is the Polarity Therapy?
Polarity therapy principle is based on the idea that a person’s health and well-being are determined by the natural flow of energy through the body. It is referred to the positive and negative charges of the body’s electromagnetic energy field. This therapy includes spinal realignment, curling toes, twisting the torso, rocking motions and moving the hands or crystals along the body’s natural energy pathways.
32) If you are a cancer patient and receiving a chemotherapy what things you should take care of?
- You must not have a full body regular massage the day or the day after infusion. If done it will give feeling of being ill and experience of flu-like symptoms
- The therapist should not work anywhere around the infused body part.
- Therapist should know enough to ask if you are expecting any neuropathy
33) Explain what is Acrosage?
Acrosage is a combination of two techniques, acrobatics and massage. The acrosage practitioner holds the massage patient in an acrobatic stance and massages the entire body. This therapy is also known as inversion therapy as the client body is completely inverted in an upside down position balancing on the therapist leg.
34) Explain what is Aromatherapy?
In Aromatherapy, therapist uses a wide range of plant oils, perfume oils, essential oils are applied to your body or simply by inhaling those oils relieve you from stress and anxiety.
35) Explain what is Craniosacral Therapy?
In this therapy, a gentle pressure is applied through hands, to create a wave like rhythmic pulse through the entire body. In this technique, the therapist makes light contact at selected points around the head, knees, torso and feet. It consists of gentle finger pressure and no bone manipulating or forceful thrusts
36) Explain what is “Cupping” method?
In “Cupping” method, which is a traditional Chinese method, an alcohol soaked cotton ball is ignited. The lit portion of ignited cotton ball is inserted into a cup or bulb like glass to create a vacuum. The cup is then balanced upon body or moved across using gliding strokes, as per the client’s requirement. It is ideal for performing deep tissue massage and helps to remove toxins, loosen adhesions and facilitate blood flow.
37) With whom an occupational therapist can work with?
Occupational therapist can work with
- Mental health services
- Physical rehabilitation
- Learning disability
- Primary care
- Research posts
- Environmental adaptation
- Care Management
38) What are all areas where occupational therapist can work?
An occupational therapist can work in
- Community centers
- Educational establishments
- GP practices
- Housing associations
- Clients homes
- Residential and Nursing homes
- Social services and council departments
39) In what all ways occupational therapist can be helpful to people?
Occupational therapist can be helpful in numerous ways
- Help them to study new ways of doing things following illness or injury
- Make them adapt appliances that can help them to perform their daily task easily like wheelchairs or toilet seats or provide special bath
- Make changes in their living environment to undertake their usual occupation
- Try to minimize the pain or discomfort due to illness or physical inability
- Boost their confidence level in social situations
40) Explain what is the role of the occupational therapist in injury management?
The role of the occupational therapist in injury management is
- Using specialized assessments to determine the functional requirements of various task, and clients capacity to return to work
- Giving knowledge to clients for safe work practices
- Modifying the work environment keeping employees health and safety in concern, and thus minimizing the injuries
- Coordinating and designing graded return to work programs
41) What are the features that occupational therapist observes before treating Autism patient?
- Attention span and stamina
- Adapting towards new activities
- Play skills
- Need for personal space
- Reactions to touch or other types of stimuli
- Basic motor skill like balance, posture and manipulation of small objects
- Aggression and other types of behaviors
- Interaction between child and carers
42) What are the benefits of occupational therapy to the patient having Autism?
- Learn how to self-regulate
- Learn how to delay gratification
- Express feeling in more appropriate ways
- Engage play with peers
- Learn how to concentrate on work
- Learn to develop social interaction with adult and peer
- Learn body awareness
43) What are the devices occupational therapist might require for helping people?
It may require
- Assistive device for ambulation like walker
- Dressing aids
- Bathroom equipment’s
- Mobility and transfer device
- Electrical stimulation system
- Cane and Crutches
44) What are the challenges does an occupational therapist has to face?
- Dealing with unsatisfied patient
- Difficulty in communicating with mentally challenged patient
- Daily maintaining living facilities for patient
- Developing living and work skills
- Adapting to a new environment and people if travelling abroad
- Language barrier with locals and patient
45) Explain the preventive occupational therapy intervention with stroke survivors?
The preventive occupational therapy intervention with stroke survivors are
- Abnormal changes in postural alignment
- Pain related with immobility or abnormal joint alignment
- Injury due to falls
- Depression following stroke
- Aspiration during eating, feeding and swallowing
46) When nursing home requires an occupational therapist?
When nursing home are dealing with people suffering from strokes, diabetes, high blood pressure then they need OT. They will meet patient three to six times per week after an injury, assessing his needs, prescribing appropriate equipment’s and training them how to use it.
47) Explain the term Accessibility audit?
Accessibility audit is a review of the access and inclusion practices of the place of public accommodation from a physical and policy perspective.
48) Explain what is meant by Adaptive Occupation?
Adaptive Occupation is a use of technical aids and technology, in combination with consultation and education to teach client’s different ways for performing their task.
49) Explain what is Augmentative or Alternative communications?
The systems that supplement or replace communication by gesture or voice among people is referred as augmentative or alternative communications.
50) What are Auxiliary aids?
Auxiliary aids are devices used for the client who has communicating disabilities, and aids used are assistive listening devices, taped texts, closed caption decoders on televisions and qualified interpreters.
51) List out the common types of documentation done by occupational therapist?
Documentation done by occupational therapist includes
- Screening: It includes details like client information, referral information, medical history, etc.
- Evaluation: It includes evaluation and re-evaluation report
- Intervention: It includes intervention plan, contact report note, transition plan and progress report
- Outcomes: It includes discharge or discontinuation report
52) Explain what is sensory defensiveness?
Sensory defensiveness is used to define child’s behavior in response to sensory input, reflecting severe over-reaction to a particular sensory input.
53) When dynamic splint can be used?
Dynamic splint is made of plastic material to support and immobilize bone or to support stretched muscles. It can be used in various ways like
- To correct or prevent deformity with tightening joints or muscles
- Stop weakened muscles from over strengthening
- Strengthening weak muscles
- To gain better range of motion before surgery
- Provide an even muscle balance when there is an imbalance
54) Explain the term dyspraxia and what are their types?
“Dyspraxia” is a disorder, where a person’s motor skill (locomotive movements) gets hampered. It can affect daily activities of a person like holding pencils to brushing teeth. Dyspraxia is classified into four categories.
- Ideomotor Dyspraxia
- Ideational Dyspraxia
- Oromotor Dyspraxia
- Constructional Dyspraxia