1) What are the fibres used in Textile Industry?
Three basic types of fibres used in Textile industries are
• Synthetic fibres
• Natural fibres
• Cotton fibres
2) What are the chemical based procedures used in textile manufacturing?
• Bleach clean up
• Fabric softening
• Dyeing & Printing
3) Mention what is the difference between yarn and thread?
There is three basic material you need to manufacture textile Thread, Yarn and Fiber. A Fiber is the basic raw material to produce yarn or thread. A textile Fiber could be natural or synthetic (man-made).
The difference between Yarn and Thread is
• Yarn: It is a continuous twisted strand of wool, cotton or synthetic fibre used for Knitting or weaving purpose
• Thread: It is a fine cord made up of two or more twisted fibres used in sewing and weaving
4) What are the different types of cotton available?
Different types of cotton available are
• Grey cotton fabric
• Bleached cotton fabric
• Color or dyed cotton fabric
5) What is habutae?
It is a silk fabric specially produced only in Japan but recently the reverse trend of importing this from China and Korea is increasing.
6) Explain the fundamental principle of Knitting?
The basic principle of knitting is that a single yarn which is formed into interlocking loops with the help of hooked needles. The loops may be closely or loosely constructed.
7) What is wale and course in the textile industry?
• Course: In Knitted fabric loop, the total amount of horizontal rows is known as Course.
• Wale: In Knitted fabric loop the total amount of vertical rows is known as Wale.
8) What is the fibre used to create linen?
To create linen FLAX fibre is used
9) What are three basics stitches in weft knitting?
• Plain Knit stitch
• Purl stitch
• Rib stitch
10) What is glass fiber and where it is used?
Glass fiber is made up of fine fibers of glass; it is lightweight, extremely strong and robust. Compare to carbon fiber it is somewhat less strong, but it is less expensive and non-brittle. It is used for
• Filament windings around rocket cases
• Nose cones
• Exhaust nozzle
• Heat shields for aeronautical equipment
• Fishing rods
• Boat hulls and seats
• Wall paneling
11) What is two plant-based cotton source?
The two source for cotton from the plant
• Cotton plant
12) What are the different ways of Textile Quality Control?
• Spectrophotometer: It is used to check the color of the fabric
• CCP ( Crucial Control Point): It is used to check raw material, stitch strength and fabric durability
• Quality Check by industrial governing body: In U.S.A, this body is known as Association for Contract Textiles (ACT). It often imposes standard for textile quality control
• Use of UltraViolet: The fabric is exposed to ultraviolet rays that simulate the sun’s ray to check its durability.
13) Explain how polyester is made?
Polyester is a pure synthetic material made from ethylene; it is derived from petroleum residue. It is prepared in four basic forms filament, staple, tow and fiberfill.
14) Explain what are the different types of textile equipment?
Different types of machines used in the textile industry are
• Cotton Gin
• Loom for weaving
• Knitting Machines
• Tufting Machines
15) What it takes to become a textile manufacturer?
A textile manufacturer requires following things
• Knowledge of how to operate and manage robotic machinery
• Good knowledge of market and dealing with textile supplier, textile exporter and importer
• Dealing with a high cost of repairing and obtaining equipment
• Labor costs of acquiring highly trained workers needed to operate this machinery
• Acquiring raw material and negotiation skills
16) Explain what is chemical and auxillaries in the textile industry?
In the textile industry, a dyeing auxillaries is a chemical or formulated chemical which allows a processing operation in preparation, dyeing, printing or finishing to be carried out more effectively.
17) Mention what are the physical types of fibers?
The physical types of fibers are
• Staple fibers: Fiber which is practically limited or finite length is called “Staple Fiber.” These are small length fiber like wool, cotton, jute, etc. It may be man-made or natural.
• Filament fibers: Fibers with unlimited or infinite length are called filaments. It may be natural like silk or synthetic like nylon.
18) How many fibers can you yield from each cotton seed?
Each cotton seed may produce as many as 20,000 fibers on its surface, and a single ball will contains around 150,000 fibers.
19) Explain what is Tufting?
Tufting is a type of method for textile weaving, which is done by pushing extra yarn into a fabric. In this process, many needles simultaneously punch the fabric at pre-determined distance for extruding the fibers. Tufting is usually done on carpets, blankets and upholstery.
20) How non-woven fabrics are made?
The non-woven fabrics are made by interlocking or bonding of fibers through mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means. Different types of fabric are used for nonwovens like wool, cotton, polyester, acrylic, etc.
21) What are the different methods of dyeing?
Different types of dyeing methods are
• Stock dyeing
• Top dyeing
• Yarn dyeing
• Piece dyeing
• Garment dyeing
• Dope dyeing
22) How electrostatic printing works for printing textiles?
In electrostatic printing a dye resin mixture is used, this mixture is spread on a screen bearing the design and then the fabric is passed into an electrostatic field under the screen. By effect of electro-static field, this dye resin mixture is pulled through the pattern area on the fabric.
23) Explain what is Batik Dyeing process?
Batik Dyeing process based on the principle of resisting dyeing process. In this technique, wax is used to design on the fabric and then immersed into a dye, and excluding wax parts the fabric will absorb the color.
24) Explain what is spandex?
Spandex is a special type of synthetic fiber made from a long chain of synthetic polymer known as polyurethane. It is also known as lycra and it’s more important characteristics is stretchability. It can stretch up to 500% to its normal size and its widely used for preparing sportswear.
25) Explain what are benefits of Quality Inspection?
• Reduce the cost associated with quality problems
• Identify any non-conformity between the original product and pre-production sample
• Enhances the relationship with suppliers