1) Explain what is protein made up of?
Proteins are made up amino acids, and a long chain of amino acid is needed to make proteins.
2) What are the different structures or shapes of protein?
Protein structures are classified into four
3) How many amino acid makes one protein?
To make one protein you require 21 amino acid.
4) What is an amino acid made up of?
Usually, an amino acid is made up of following things
- A hydrogen atom (H)
- A carboxyl group ( -COOH)
- Amino group (-NH2)
- A ‘R’ group or variable
5) Explain what is ‘R’ in amino acid?
‘R’ group is any hydrogen or carbon chain that is bonded to the alpha carbon. Among 21 amino acid which makes protein, 6 amino acid has just a hydrogen atom in the position of the R –group.
6) What determines the structure of protein?
The primary structure of polypeptide in protein determines the primary, secondary and tertiary structure of proteins.
7) Explain what catalase enzyme is and what is the function of it?
Catalase enzyme are large specialized protein molecules, which prevents the formation of radicals which are reactive molecules and cause DNA mutation which cause cancer. The primary function of catalase enzyme is the rapid breakdown of hydrogen peroxide.
8) What is the science behind the hair becomes white or grey with ageing?
Melanin pigment is responsible for the hair colour, and research as shown that hydrogen peroxide interferes with its functioning. With aging catalase enzyme production diminishes which regulates the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. When there is an excess accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in tissues it will cause de-coloration or whitening of hairs.
9) List out the factors that affects the enzyme activity?
The factors that affect the enzyme activity are
10) What is the primary role of metabolic enzymes? Where it is produced and how you increase it naturally?
The primary role of metabolic enzymes is to repair and rebuilding damaged tissues in your body also to eliminate the undigested food. It is secreted in the pancreas, and you can increase it secretion by eating raw foods and with moderate exercise.
11) Explain what is channel protein? Give an example where you will find channel protein?
Channel protein are like gates that opens and close depending on the concentration gradient across the cell membrane; it enables to transport protein and other larger bio-molecule which otherwise unable to transport through the membrane of the cell.
Potassium channel is one such example of membrane protein, which allows the K+ (potassium charges) and generates an electrical signal which facilitate the nerve impulse to propagate in the nervous system.
12) Explain what does CCBs (Calcium channel blocking agents) do? Give some example?
Calcium channel is blocking agents or drugs that blocks the calcium ions across the cell membranes by blocking the L-type channel. These drugs are prescribed to patients who are suffering from hypertension. They are classified into three groups.
13) What is the function of plasma membrane CA+2 ATPase?
Plasma membrane Ca+2 ATPase is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells, it acts like a pump that does the function of removing of CA+2 ions from the cells. When the function of this pump hampers it causes diseases like hypertension, diabetes and sensorineural diabetes.
14) Explain what is micro-tubules?
A filamentous intracellular structure that are responsible for various kinds’ protein and vesicles movement in all eukaryotic cells are known as micro-tubules. They are the main structure of the cytoskeleton in cells.
15) Explain what is the technique used to detect protein concentration?
To detect protein or other bio-molecules, mass spectrophotometry is used. It works on the principle of light absorption method. This instrument measures the amount of light of a specified wavelength. Moreover, the amount of light absorbed by the medium is directly proportional to the concentration of the bio-molecules or protein.
16) What is anti-body made up of? What are the different types of anti-bodies?
Anti-body is a protein, like majority of protein, this protein is also made up of more than one polypeptide. They are also referred as binding proteins and are very specific for a specific ligand known as antigen.
They are classified into
17) Explain what is HPLC?
HPLC stands for High Performance Liquid Chromatography; it is an equipment and method which is used to separate bio-molecules according to their size. In this technique, a pressurized liquid along with sample is allowed to pass through a column filled with sorbent. Moreover, the bio-molecules will be separated according to the interaction with the sorbent.
18) Explain what are Cytokines?
Cytokines are special types of non-antibody that act as mediators between cells. Their role is believed to be in boosting immunity but recently it is discovered that other than immune cell they also have effects on non-immune cells.
19) What are the different types of Cytokines?
Different type of Cytokines are
20) Give detail about IgG antibody?
IgG anti-body is the main anti-body in blood. It is the only anti-body that pass through the placenta, and it through placenta it is transferred to the mother’s body and protects the new-born until a week after birth. It is widely distributed to the blood and tissue.
21) Explain what are Chemokines?
Chemokines are one of the cytokines types, which are produced by many kinds of leucocytes and other cell types. It represents the group of family of molecules that does the function of recruiting leucocytes to the infection sites.
22) Mention the cytokines that play a significant role in the adaptive immune system?
23) Explain what are T-cells?
T-cells are the type of white blood cell that circulate into our bodies, which scans for infections and cellular abnormalities.
24) What are the primary functions of T-cells?
The primary functions of T-cells are
- Kill cells infected by virus or bacteria
- Naturally kills cancer cells
- Scans intracellular environment for foreign invaders
- Activate other immune cells or molecules
25) Explain what is Interleukin 6?
Interleukin 6 is also a cytokine; macrophages and T cells secret it. It acts as a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. It becomes activated when there in an information within body and outside body. Interleukins are referred as IL.
26) What do you like most about medicine?
- Plenty of opportunities upon graduating
- You will directly involve in helping people
- People continue to learn and grow
- Making a positive contribution towards community and society
27) Mention how are you a good match for our medical school?
I am a good match for your medical school because,
- I believe in your mission of exceptional patient care while incorporating all aspects of medicine in the learning process.
- Your medical school supports all those facilities that I want to get expertise
- You have some well know trainers in field
28) Mention what’s are the qualities of a good doctor?
Qualities of a good doctor,
- Respect people, healthy or ill
- Support patients when and where they are needed
- Promote health as well as treat disease
- Use technologies to help patient with the best possible way
- Always prefer to ask courteous questions. Let people talk and listen to them carefully
- Give right advice, Let people contribute actively in all decisions regarding their health
- Assess each situation carefully
- Use evidence not as a determinant of practice but as a tool
- When death is close for critically ill patients, try to make the best possible arrangements for them
- Co-operate with other members of the healthcare team
- Be proactive advocates for their patients,
- Mentors for other health professionals, and ready to learn from others, regardless of their age, role, or status.
29) Mention the biggest Challenges of Medical School?
The biggest Challenges of Medical School are,
- Medical Terminology
- Motivation and Burnout
30) How will you figure out whether to become a doctor or not?
Ask following questions to yourself to figure out whether to become a doctor or not,
- Have you spent enough time with people or patient to understand their problem and help them?
- Do you enjoy the mental processes involved in doctoring like decipher the patient stories, examining them, and combining those activities with the
- Showing humility- correcting mistakes if at all possible
- Willingness to educate patients
- Do you have patience and good communication skills to listen to the patient problem?
31) Mention what all things you should know before applying to Medical school?
Before applying to Medical school, you should know
- How long does it take to become a doctor including internship
- When one should start preparing for medical school applications
- What type of classes should undergraduate student should take before applying to Medical school
- Get yourself clear about the MD degree from an allopathic school and DO degree from an Osteopathic school
- What else can you in addition to practicing medicine
32) Mention what are the common misconceptions about medical school and becoming a doctor?
Common misunderstandings about medical school and becoming a doctor is
- You need straight A’s to get into medical school.
- Only science majors get acknowledged to medical school.
- Before applying to medical school, every pre-med requirement has to be completed
- The medical school will teach you only things that need to know to be a physician.
- Doctors work 80-hour work weeks
- Becoming a doctor takes forever
33) Mention what if you don’t get into Medical School this year?
I will find out why I was not accepted, correcting this shortcoming and apply again.
34) Mention what are the common mistakes made by medical school applicant?
Common mistakes made by medical school applicant,
- Not knowing how many applications are required
- Applying too soon
- Allocating few days for MCAT won’t be helpful
- Ignoring volunteer opportunities
- Ignoring post-baccalaureate program who did not score good grades
- Writing a lackluster personal statement
- Stumbling through interview
- Not spending time in research program
35) Mention what is the difference between M.D and D.O in U.S?
- MD’s practice allopathic medicine. It is the classical form of medicine. It is mainly focused on the diagnosis and treatment of illness.
- DO’s practice osteopathic medicine. It has a more holistic view of medicine and focused on diagonizing patient as a “whole,” rather than treating the symptoms alone.
36) For the patient, who have allergic sensitivity, would you recommend NSAID (Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory) drugs like Nimesulide?
Nimesulide belongs to the NSAID group, and there are some common as well as adverse side effect observed in patients taking this drug. Therefore, it is better not to prescribe this drug to an allergic patient or even to a healthy person. The side effects include diarrhea, vomiting, skin rash, itching, gastrointestinal side effects, nervous system side effects, etc.
37) Explain what is Psoriatic arthritis?
Psoriatic arthritis is a type of arthritis that is observed in the patient having psoriasis. Psoriasis is a condition that features red patches of skin topped with silvery scales. Joint pain, stiffness and swelling are the main symptoms of psoriatic arthritis.
38) Explain what is Vertigo? What is the treatment of Vertigo?
Vertigo is a condition where the patient will have the illusion of motion. It is differentiated in two types; one is subjective vertigo, and another is objective vertigo. There are many reasons, patient that can cause this condition like decreased blood flow of blood to the base of the brain, migraine, brain tumor, cold viruses, head trauma and neck injury, etc. Patient can be treated by giving them medication like diazepam or meclizine.
39) Explain what are the types of nerves you find in the foot?
The types of nerves you find in the foot are• Tibial Nerve
• Common fibular Nerve
• Sural Nerve
• Saphenous Nerve
• Medial plantar Nerve
• Lateral plantar Nerve
• Plantar digital nerves
• Calcaneal branches of the tibial and sural nerve
40) What do you mean by term Asphyxia?
Asphyxia is term used to refer a medical condition, where there is too little oxygen in the blood and more carbon dioxide. Such condition is usually seen in the baby during birth time.
41) List out some of the medicines used to treat diabetes mellitus?
• Sulfonylurea medicines
• Nateglinide and repaglinide
• Exenatide and liraglutide
42) Explain what is Epilepsy?
Epilepsy is a brain disorder where a group of nerve cells or neuron, in the brain sometimes signal strangely. During seizure, brain may cause neuron to fire signals as many as 500 times a second.
43) List out the common types of seizures in Epilepsy?
Common types of seizures observed are• “Grand Mal” or Generalized tonic-clonic: Muscle rigidity, convulsions, un-consciousness
• Absence: Brief loss of consciousness
• Myoclonic: Sporadic, jerking movements
• Clonic: Repetitive, jerking movements
• Tonic: Rigidity, Muscle stiffness
• Atonic: Loss of muscle tone
44) Explain how to treat a patient who is drowned in water?
You can treat a patient with
• Continue resuscitation as required or intubate if unconscious
• Supply oxygen
• Treat hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, seizures, hypovolemia and hypotension
• Observe the patient for at least 6 hours if it is awake as pulmonary oedema may occur within four hours
• Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), intubation and mechanical ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure
• Dialysis of renal failure
• Prophylactic antibiotics if patient drown in contaminated water
• Nasogastric tube & Catheter if needed
• Hyperbaric oxygen, artificial surfactant and nitrous oxide
45) Explain what are the treatments for blocked airways by lung tumor?
If tumour in the lung is blocking the airways, then following techniques can be used
• Internal Radiography
• Electric current therapy
• Laser therapy
• Photodynamic therapy
• Radio wave treatment
46) Explain what a stroke is and what are the types of stroke?
A stroke is referred for brain attack that occurs when there is a blockage or interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain.
There are two types of strokes
• Ischemic stroke: This type of stroke occurs due to an obstruction within a blood vessel supplying blood to the brain
• Haemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke happens when a weakened blood vessel ruptures and spills blood into brain tissue.
47) Explain how ECG (Electro Cardio Gram) nodes are represented?
ECG machine will show five waves PQRST
• P Wave: It represents the normal atrial depolarization ( contraction of atria)
• QRS Wave: It represents the depolarization of the right and left ventricles (Contraction of ventricles
• T Wave: It represents the re-polarization of the ventricles (Relaxation of ventricles)
48) Explain what are the limitations of ECG?
• It reveals the heart rate and rhythm only during the time ECG is taken. If there is any intermittent cardiac rhythm, it is more likely to miss them
• Many times it observed that what appears abnormalities on ECG, sometimes have no medical significance
• ECG can often be normal or nearly normal in patients suffering from coronary artery disease
49) List some of the drug interaction that must be avoided or considered too dangerous?
Some of dangerous drug interaction that must be avoided are
• Warfarin + NSAID’s
• Warfarin + Sulfa drugs
• Warfarin + Macrolides
• Warfarin +Quinolones
• Warfarin + Phenytoin
• ACE Inhibitors+Potassium Supplements
• ACE Inhibitors + Spironolactone
• Digoxin + Amiodarone
50) Mention the medication that is prescribed to treat a patient having high blood pressure?
Medication used for treating high blood pressure are
• ACE Inhibitors
• Calcium channel blockers
• Angiotensin receptor blockers
51) Explain what is the role of Glucocorticoids drugs?
Prednisolone is one of the examples of Glucocorticoid drugs; they are one type of steroid. This drug is used for the treatment of many diseases like multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, inflammation etc. Normally, the human body makes glucocorticoids in form of cortisol, whose primary function is to stop information, but when there is excess need of cortisol to cure chronic inflammation, a synthetic glucocorticoid is provided.
52) What are the factors that may cause thyroid problems in an individual?
The factors that may cause thyroid problems in an individual are
• Toxic Adenomas
• Subacute thyroiditis
• Pituitary gland malfunctions or cancerous growths in the thyroid gland
• Hashimoto’s disease ( body own immune system attacks thyroid tissue)
• Removal of the thyroid gland
• Exposure to excessive amounts of iodide
• Lithium drug
53) Explain what cause elephantiasis?
There are two ways elephantiasis can be infected
• Lymphatic Filariasis: It is caused by a worm known as wuchereria bancrofti parasite and is transmitted to human through mosquito bites
• Non-filarial elephantiasis: This type of elephantiasis is more seen in central African region, and this occurs due to the chemical present in the volcanic ashes.
In both types of infection, they attack lymph nodes, often caused by an obstruction of lymphatic vessels, resulting in swelling of skin and tissue.
54) How hyperthyroidism can be treated?
Hyperthyroidism can be suppressed or treated in these ways:
• Radioiodine Treatment
• Anti-thyroid medication
55) Explain what is the difference between hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism?
• Hyperthyroidism: When thyroid hormone produces more thyroid hormones than the body’s requirement, then it is referred as Hyperthyroidism.
• Hypothyroidism: When thyroid hormone does not produce the minimum amount of thyroid hormone then, it is referred as Hypothyroidism.